This is a study of Japan s home-grown concept of seikatsusha that resembles citizen, people, consumer, common man, and the public, though not exactly identical with any of them. The idea has occupied an important place in Japanese everyday life, academia and progressive movements. Masako Amano presents an extensive genealogy of the concept from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present day. While examining the philosophy of such thinkers as Kiyoshi Miki, Nobuyuki Onuma and Shunsuke Tsurumi, the book scrutinizes the debate over seikatsusha, which has been undertaken by a variety of political and intellectual movements, including Shiso no kagaku Science of thought , Beheiren Citizens for Peace in Vietnam and Seikatsu Club. The work points to the viability of the idea of seikatsusha in a sustainable welfare society in the twenty-first century, and is the first in English to fully investigate the concept within Japan s historical and structural context.