Jiro Tanaka’s The Bushmen archives nearly fifty years of research with some of Southern Africa’s remotest groups. Forming part of the canon of Japanese ecological anthropology and area studies, Tanaka’s deep connection with his subject matter is evident through his insightful and often touching stories and reflections on a rich and challenging life work. Tanaka interweaves ethnographic materials with broader reflections on the changes that have beset Bushman groups carried by waves of global political and economic developments. While some of the characteristics of the process of transformation are specific to Bushman society, many others are shared by other indigenous and minority societies around the world. This book attempts to analyze the transformation process from this perspective and at the same time serve as a catalyst for readers to look back and question the state of our own civilization.