In order to produce sufficient quantities of food to feed the world’s growing population, we need to increase the food producing capacities of crops and to protect the environments in which they grow. Discovering untapped plant resources is an important challenge, but a haphazard increase in food production may cause environmental damage. We need good foresight and must take appropriate actions. The sago palm is a plant that might fulfill all of these requirements. The sago palm accumulates more starch than any other plant in the world, yet it continues to languish in relative obscurity in global terms. The Japan Society of Sago Palm Studies was formed in the hope of raising its profile by hosting seminars and symposiums in Japan and overseas to help it achieve the recognition it deserves. To this end, the Society’s members have worked together to produce this volume, written in an easy-to-understand style.