Multiple discourses circulate Japanese society surrounding the relationship between Japanese people and the English language. For example, ‘Japanese people are the worst English speakers in Asia’, ‘Japanese women love the English language’ and ‘learning English leads to increased income and career opportunities’. From a sociological perspective, this book tests the veracity of these discourses, using social statistical data. The aim here is to paint an accurate picture of society to assist the argument for evidence-based policy in English language education and to challenge the myths about Japanese people and the English language propagated by various interest groups, including the government and the business community. This important book reveals that the English language discourses that exist in Japan today are largely based on misconceptions, pointing to the urgent need to challenge the education policies based on such falsehoods.